I always seem to get questions this time of year about paying overtime or “extra pay” to exempt employees. Many departments or companies have this time of year as their busiest and want to make sure that exempt employees can earn extra monies during this time without endangering their exempt status or actually converting those employees to nonexempt. I want to refer my followers to a great blog by Bill Pokorny of Franczek Radelet written for the Wage and Hour Insights blog that answers this exact question. I hope you find it useful.
Well it’s almost over, the 2018 election. Still having a few counts here and there with a runoff election still to come. But all in all, the 2018 election has come and gone. The only thing that remains, as it does after every election cycle here in the United States, is the discussion of making election day a national holiday. But what exactly does a “national holiday” mean here in the United States?
It appears to me that most people who discuss having election day designated as a national holiday don’t understand how holidays work here in this country. The United States does not have national holidays. It’s that simple. Yes, we have days that are designated as a holiday on the federal level. But these days are not official holidays for all employees in the country. They are, rather, the days that federal employees are given off with pay. I have stated this before, in other blogs, but will state once again. The United States is the only country that does not mandate that employees receive days off with pay in honor of national holidays. When I say other countries, I am speaking of course of industrialized countries. But this list of industrialized countries includes Chad, Peru, Slovenia and Sudan. So, we are not only talking about major European countries such as Germany or France. But if we were just looking at European countries let’s take Germany as an example. Germany has one national public holiday which is their German Unity Day, with the remaining 9 to 13 holidays being regulated by what they call their states even though some of them are held nationwide. Now this is in addition to 20 days of vacation as well as additional dates that the employer may give as a public holiday. Yet despite this they have a very strong economy. Yet here in the United States is not mandated for all employees to have the nation’s birthday, July 4th, off with pay.
Therefore, when local, regional, statewide, and national elected officials talk of having our election day as a national holiday it means nothing to the average worker if it were simply to be added to the holidays we already have. Yes, many employees may get Christmas off with pay, or Fourth of July off with pay, but not all employees are required to be given the day off with pay. It all depends on the company’s or employer’s policy. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics workers in private industry in the United States receive an average of eight paid holidays per year based on the latest statistics in 2017. Workers in the manufacturing and information industries are more likely to receive paid holidays (97%). But workers in the leisure or hospitality industry only receive paid holidays 37% of the time. Not all workers receive the same holidays or the same number of holidays. For example, again the Bureau of Labor Statistics states that workers in manufacturing and financial activities receive an average of nine paid holidays per year while workers in leisure and hospitality receive an average of six paid holidays per year. For clarification, there are 10 annual federal holidays with Inauguration Day occurring only once every four years for a total of 11 days.
Before you start the discussion of employees who would not be able to have a day off due to their type of work such as first responders, hospitals and even restaurants, other countries have already addressed this issue quite easily. It is usual for the employee who must work on a “mandated holiday” to have another day off with pay. So, if on a Monday holiday, I would have to work as a police officer, I might get Tuesday or Wednesday off with pay in addition to my normal days off.
My question to all the elected officials and others who advocate a national day off to vote is this: Where would this national election day fall? Would it establish our first and only mandated national holiday? Or would it just simply be added to the calendar as another day to shop, BBQ or sleep in, if and only if, my employer decided to give me the day off with pay?
On Monday, April 30, the California Supreme Court issued a landmark [Dynamex Operations West v. Superior Ct., Cal. Sup. Ct., Dkt. No. S222732, 4/30/18] decision basically stating that the “ABC Test” is to be used when determining whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor for purposes of California wage orders. Previous to this latest decision the court case of S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v. Department of Industrial Relations, Cal. Sup. Ct., 769 P.2d 399, 3/23/89) was used to determine employee status. In that case the principal test of an employment relationship was whether the person to whom services were rendered has the right to control the manner and means of accomplishing the result desired. Under Dynamex, the Court embraced a standard that presumes all workers are employees instead of contractors and places the burden on classifying an independent contractor under the ABC test.
For a detailed analysis of this case and how you might have to adjust your hiring decisions, I will refer you to the Labor & Employment Law Blog posted by Timothy Kim for the law firm of Sheppard Mullin.
The Wage and Hour Division (WHD) of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) is launching a new series of brief, plain-language videos to help employers understand their legal obligations when it comes to calculating overtime etc. According the the WHD website these videos “strip away the legalese and provide employers with basic information…” The topics provided so far are:
- Coverage: Does the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) apply to my business?
- Minimum Wage: What minimum wage requirements apply to my business?
- Deductions: Can I charge my employees for uniforms or other business expenses?
- Hours Worked: Do I have to Pay for that time?
- Overtime: When do I owe overtime compensation and how do I pay it correctly?
The videos are very well done and cover the rules quite nicely. For example the overtime video does go into all the calculations needed for regular rate of pay. They last an average of seven or eight minutes each. If you are looking for a good basic training on these topics listed check out the videos from WHD.
The Federal Department of Labor (DOL) has been issuing a flurry of opinion letters recently. But even more amazing, is that one of the opinion letters actually deals with a subject long been a thorn in payroll’s side and one that some of us have waited years for a ruling. The basic problem is whether or not lump sum payments such as bonuses are the same as normal wages under the law when it comes to withholding for garnishments. You see many of the states do not think that lump sum payments fall under the Consumer Credit Protection Act or CCPA. This is the Act, written in 1970, that sets the limits for what can be deducted from an employee’s pay for such garnishments as child support and creditor garnishments. The DOL is actually in charge of enforcing the Act, but has always been unclear on their position on whether or not lump sum payments are covered under the Act. This is especially true for child support, as employers may actually be required to report the pending lump sum payment and wait for instructions on withholding, usually for back child support owed to the state. For example, according the the Office of Child Support Enforcement’s matrix on states and lump sums, Alabama requires 100% of all lump sums. California states that it is subject to 50% unless the lump sum payment does “not involve earnings”. while Indiana follows the CCPA, So we have tried to look to the DOL to give a definition ruling on this and low and behold, they finally have.
In opinion letter CCPA2018-1NA the DOL has answered numerous questions on what constitutes earnings by discussing 18 different specific examples of common types of lump sum payments that an employer may issue to an employee. These include commissions, discretionary and non discretionary bonuses, profit sharing, production bonuses, sign-on bonuses, relocation incentive payments and safety awards.
The American Legislative Exchange Council, or as it is commonly known ALEC, according to their website, is “America’s largest nonpartisan, voluntary membership organization of state legislatures dedicated to the principles of limited government”. It’s current legislative agenda is to try to stop increases in the minimum wage and the mandatory sick leave movement as it sees it as having a negative effect on workers. But in order to keep the minimum wage low or as ALEC describes it; “Maximizing the freedom of businesses and employees to negotiate their own wages” they not only have to convince state legislatures not to raise the minimum wage or provide mandated sick leave, but have to convince all local governments as well. This is a tough job as there are thousands of local entities such as cities and counties that could decide to raise the minimum wage or enforce mandatory sick leave. So ALEC takes the approach to tackle this from the head down by convincing state legislatures that they need to pass laws that prohibit any local entity from passing any type of minimum wage or benefit increase that does not equal the state level. At this task they are making headway. The latest state to buy into ALEC and bar local governments from passing a minimum wage or benefits ordinance is Wisconsin.
New legislation, A748, prohibits counties, cities, and towns from enacting ordinances that: (1) establish or mandate local hour and overtime requirements, including scheduling employee work hours or shifts; and (2) require employers to provide employment benefits, including a retirement, pension, profit sharing, insurance, or leave benefit. The legislation does allow prospective employers to solicit salary information from previous employers and preempts counties, cities, and towns from prohibiting such solicitation. The bill is effective as of March 30, 2018.
The Department of Labor is once again issuing opinion letters. A flurry of letters were released on April 12th. One letter addressed the issue of compensating for breaks that are covered under the Family and Medical Leave Act. The Wage and Hour Insights blog authored by Staci Ketay Rotman and Bill Pokorny with FranczekRadelet covered this topic quite well so I decided to share it with my blog followers. I hope you find it useful and insightful.
As some of you may have seen on Facebook, a new video with Jane Fonda has been making the rounds. It concerns the latest Department of Labor proposed rules concerning employer treatment of tips. Leaving the politics of Jane Fonda aside this is an important issue that needs to be understood. A great source to understand this issue is the latest post from Wage & Hour Insights written by Bill Pokomy on December 8th. I highly recommend you review his analysis of the proposed rule.
If you are currently using the fluctuating workweek that is permitted under the Fair Labor Standard Acts (FLSA) you may want to review that decision. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals has drawn some limits on that method. Bill Pokorny has done a fantastic blog on discussing this recent court case. Check it out for the latest if you are currently using this type of workweek or just want to increase your current knowledge in this area.